Vaccine Effectiveness Against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 Omicron Variant in Solid Organ and Islet Transplant Recipients in England: A National Retrospective Cohort Study

Chris J. Callaghan*, Rebecca M.K. Curtis, Lisa Mumford, Heather Whitaker, Gavin Pettigrew, Dale Gardiner, Lorna Marson, Douglas Thorburn, Steven White, Jas Parmar, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Derek Manas, Rommel Ravanan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. The effectiveness of vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 Omicron variant in immunosuppressed solid organ and islet transplant (SOT) recipients is unclear. Methods. National registries in England were linked to identify SARS-CoV-2 positive tests, noninjury hospitalization within 14 d, and deaths within 28 d between December 7, 2020, and March 31, 2022 in adult SOT recipients. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for infection, and hospitalization or death, were adjusted for recipient demographics and calendar month for the Omicron-dominant period (December 20, 2021, to March 31, 2022). Mortality risk following SARS-CoV-2 infection was adjusted for recipient demographics and dominant variant using a Cox proportional-hazards model for the entire time period. Results. During the Omicron-dominant period, infection IRRs (95% confidence intervals) were higher in those receiving 2, 3, and 4 vaccine doses than in unvaccinated patients (1.25 [1.08-1.45], 1.46 [1.28-1.67], and 1.79 [1.54-2.06], respectively). However, hospitalization or death IRRs during this period were lower in those receiving 3 or 4 vaccine doses than in unvaccinated patients (0.62 [0.45-0.86] and 0.39 [0.26-0.58], respectively). Risk-adjusted analyses for deaths after SARS-CoV-2 infection between December 7, 2020, and March 31, 2022, found hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.67 (0.46-0.98), 0.46 (0.30-0.69), and 0.18 (0.09-0.35) for those with 2, 3, and 4 vaccine doses, respectively, when compared with the unvaccinated group. Conclusions. In immunosuppressed SOT recipients, vaccination is associated with incremental, dose-dependent protection against hospitalization or death after SARS-CoV-2 infection, including against the Omicron variant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1124-1135
Number of pages12
JournalTransplantation
Volume107
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023

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