For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12. y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300. mg/L or above 3000. mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) μg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) μg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European population was well below the current health-based guidance values and no participant had BPA values higher than the health-based guidance values.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to express the greatest possible gratitude to the many people who contributed to the success of this project, which includes the members of the statistical working group and all DEMOCOPHES and COPHES project partners of the participating countries. COPHES is funded under the 7th EU framework program ( DG Research No. 244237 – http://www.eu-hbm.info/cophes ). DEMOCOPHES is funded 50% by LIFE+ 2009 ( DG Environment – LIFE09ENV/BE000410 ) and the corresponding authorities in each country ( http://www.eu-hbm.info/democophes/project-partners ). The additional analyses necessary for this study were not covered by the DEMOCOPHES funding. For Luxembourg, this was an in-house contribution of the CRP – Gabriel Lippmann. For Spain the analysis were funded by MAGRAMA-ISCIII agreement SEG 112/10 . For Belgium, this was an in-house contribution of the FPS Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment.
© 2014 Elsevier Inc.
- Human biomonitoring
- Human exposure
- Mother-children pairs