Tuberculosis transmission attributable to close contacts and HIV status, Malawi

Amelia C. Crampin, Judith R. Glynn*, Hamidou Traore, Malcolm D. Yates, Lorren Mwaungulu, Michael Mwenebabu, Steven D. Chaguluka, Sian Floyd, Francis Drobniewski, Paul E.M. Fine

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We conducted the first molecular study of tuberculosis (TB) to estimate the role of household contact and transmission from HIV-positive putative source contacts (PSCs) in a high HIV-prevalence area. TB patients in a long-term population-based study in Malawi were asked about past contact with TB. DNA fingerprinting was used to define clusters of cases with identical strains. Among 143 epidemiologically defined PSC-case pairs, fingerprinting confirmed transmission for 44% of household and family contacts and 18% of other contacts. Transmission was less likely to be confirmed if the PSC were HIV positive than if he or she were HIV negative (odds ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.74). Overall, epidemiologic links were found for 11% of 754 fingerprint-clustered cases. We estimate that 9%-13% of TB cases were attributable to recent transmission from identifiable close contacts and that nearly half of the TB cases arising from recent infection had acquired the infection from HIV-positive patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-735
Number of pages7
JournalEmerging Infectious Diseases
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2006

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Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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