Decontamination of skin by washing may increase dermal absorption, a phenomenon known as the wash-in effect. The wash-in effect is frequently discussed in studies investigating casualty decontamination where potentially life-saving interventions may enhance the dermal penetration of toxic chemicals, leading to an increase in incidence of morbidity and rates of mortality. However, the wash-in effect is seldom investigated within the context of mass casualty decontamination and real-life consequences are therefore poorly understood. This paper reviews the existing literature on the wash-in effect to highlight the proposed mechanisms for enhanced absorption and evaluate the wash-in effect within the context of mass casualty chemical decontamination.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part B: Critical Reviews|
|Early online date||27 Feb 2022|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 27 Feb 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information: This work was supported by the National Institute for Health Research [NIHR130440] and part funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards, a partnership between UK Health Security Agency and Imperial College London
Open Access: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Citation: Thomas James, Lydia Izon-Cooper, Samuel Collins, Haydn Cole & Tim Marczylo (2022) The wash-in effect and its significance for mass casualty decontamination, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 25:3, 113-134,
- Emergency response
- casualty decontamination
- skin penetration
- wash-in effect