Candida species are the most common fungal causes of disseminated infections in humans. Although such infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, it is widely accepted that virulence, antifungal susceptibility, and disease outcome vary according to individual Candida species. In this respect, the emerging pathogen Candida auris has received much attention due to its propensity to cause widespread nosocomial outbreaks, to exhibit high virulence in several infection models, and to develop resistance to multiple classes of antifungal drugs. Although mammalian models of infection have long been viewed as the gold standard for studies on fungal virulence, comparative pathogenicity, and evaluation of antifungal drug efficacy, the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have shown considerable promise as an alternative invertebrate model of infection. Galleria larvae are inexpensive, are easily maintained in the laboratory, tolerate incubation at human physiological temperatures, possess cellular and humoral immune systems that share many features with mammals, and allow investigation of pathogenicity/virulence using multiple different reading endpoints. Here, I describe in detail the methods that can be used to study the virulence/pathogenicity of Candida auris in G. mellonella.
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- Candida auris
- Clonal lineages
- Galleria mellonella