The multi-step nature of carcinogenesis and the implications for risk analysis

Roger Cox*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: For the purposes of constructing biologically realistic models of radiation cancer risk it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of the post-irradiation mechanisms involved. Methods: This brief review considers selected aspects of DNA damage response, tumour initiation/development, together with attendant factors and provides comment on the implications for cancer risk estimation and some of the uncertainties that remain. Conclusions: It is judged from studies with animal models that, in the main, radiation tumorigenesis proceeds in a conventional multi-step fashion following radiation-induced specific gene losses from single-target stem cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-376
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1998

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


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