The results showed that plutonium may be retained in bone marrow macrophages for a considerable time. Consequently, plutonium deposits in these cells may substantially irradiate components of the surrounding bone marrow and cells on bone surfaces. In red bone marrow these include the radiation sensitive cells which give rise to leukaemia. If follows that bone marrow deposits of plutonium resulting from the turnover of contaminated bone are likely to be important in radiation protection dosimetry. The period of plutonium retention in the bone marrow was found to exceed that in the liver. In addition to the above the results of this study suggest that the autoradiographic methods used to measure the plutonium content of the bone marrow are likely to be suitable for studying those factors which may affect the rate of loss of alpha-emitters from this tissue. These factors include the iron status, sex, and age of the animal and effects of drugs and radiation on the cells.