The integration of conventional and unconventional T cells that characterizes cell-mediated responses

Daniel J. Pennington*, David Vermijlen, Emma L. Wise, Sarah L. Clarke, Robert E. Tigelaar, Adrian C. Hayday

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


This review builds on evidence that cell-mediated immune responses to bacteria, viruses, parasites, and tumors are an integration of conventional and unconventional T-cell activities. Whereas conventional T cells provide clonal antigen-specific responses, unconventional T cells profoundly regulate conventional T cells, often suppressing their activities such that immunopathology is limited. By extrapolation, immunopathologies and inflammatory diseases may reflect defects in regulation by unconventional T cells. To explore the function of unconventional T cells, several extensive gene expression analyses have been undertaken. These studies are reviewed in some detail, with emphasis on the mechanisms by which unconventional T cells may exert their regulatory functions. Highlighting the fundamental nature of T-cell integration, we also review emerging data that the development of conventional and unconventional T cells is also highly integrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-59
Number of pages33
JournalAdvances in Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Wellcome Trust for support, the NIH (R. H.), and the Marie Curie Intra‐European Fellowship Programme (D. V.). This paper is dedicated to F. L. Hayday (1922–2005).


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