Weather and climate networks traditionally follow rigorous siting guidelines, with individual stations located away from frost hollows, trees or urban areas. However, the diverse nature of the UK landscape suggests that the feasibility of siting stations that are truly representative of regional climate and free from distorting local effects is increasingly difficult. Whilst the urban heat island is a well-studied phenomenon and usually accounted for, the effect of warm urban air advected downwind is rarely considered, particularly at rural stations adjacent to urban areas. Until recently, urban heat advection (UHA) was viewed as an urban boundary-layer process through the formation of an urban plume that rises above the surface as it is advected. However, these dynamic UHA effects are shown to also have an impact on surface observations. Results show a significant difference in temperatures anomalies (p<0.001) between observations taken downwind of urban and rural areas. For example, urban heat advection from small urbanized areas (∼ 1km2) under low cloud cover and wind speeds of 2–3ms-1 is found to increase mean nocturnal air temperatures by 0.6∘C at a horizontal distance of 0.5 km. Fundamentally, these UHA results highlight the importance of careful interpretation of long-term temperature data taken near small urban areas.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded through a Natural Environment Research Council collaborative award in science and engineering studentship [grant number NE/K008056/1]. This work was supported through freely accessible meteorological data from the Met Office (via the Met Office Integrated Data Archive System) and high-resolution maps from the Ordnance Survey.
© 2017, The Author(s).
- Temperature observations
- Urban heat advection
- Urban heat island