The Effectiveness of Interventions for Increasing COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake: A Systematic Review

Eleonore Batteux, Freya Mills*, Leah Ffion Jones, Charles Symons, Dale Weston

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Vaccination is vital to protect the public against COVID-19. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. We searched a range of databases (Embase, Medline, Psychology & Behavioral Science, PsycInfo, Web of Science and NIH Preprints Portfolio) from March 2020 to July 2021 for studies which reported primary quantitative or qualitative research on interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Outcome measures included vaccination uptake and reported intention to vaccinate. Reviews, position papers, conference abstracts, protocol papers and papers not in English were excluded. The NHLBI quality assessment was used to assess risk of bias. In total, 39 studies across 33 papers met the inclusion criteria. A total of 28 were assessed as good quality. They included interventions relating to communication content, communication delivery, communication presentation, policy or vaccination delivery, with 7 measuring vaccination uptake and 32 measuring vaccination intention. A narrative synthesis was conducted, which highlighted that there is reasonable evidence from studies investigating real behaviour suggesting that personalising communications and sending booking reminders via text message increases vaccine uptake. Findings on vaccination intention are mixed but suggest that communicating uncertainty about the vaccine does not decrease intention, whereas making vaccination mandatory could have a negative impact. Although much of the research used experimental designs, very few measured real behavioural outcomes. Understanding which interventions are most effective amongst vaccine-hesitant populations and in the context of booster vaccinations will be important as vaccine roll outs continue across the world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number386
Number of pages25
JournalVaccines
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: DW is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Units (NIHR HPRU) in Emergency Preparedness and Response (grant number 200890), a partnership between UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), King’s College London and the University of East Anglia, and the NIHR HPRU in Behavioural Science and Evaluation (grant number 200877), a partnership between UK Health Security Agency and the University of Bristol. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR, UKHSA or the Department of Health and Social Care. All authors had full access to the data and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. No external funding organisation had a role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

The authors declare no conflict of interest. No external funding organisation
had a role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Open Access: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and
conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Citation: Batteux, E.; Mills, F.; Jones, L.F.; Symons, C.;Weston, D. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Increasing COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake: A Systematic Review. Vaccines 2022, 10, 386.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030386

Keywords

  • Behaviour change
  • COVID-19
  • Interventions
  • Systematic review
  • Vaccine uptake
  • Vaccines

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