Mosquito-borne diseases resulting from the expansion of two key vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), continue to challenge whole regions and continents around the globe. In recent years there have been human cases of disease associated with Chikungunya, dengue and Zika viruses. In Europe, the expansion of Ae. albopictus has resulted in local transmission of Chikungunya and dengue viruses. This paper considers the risk that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus represent for the U.K. and details the results of mosquito surveillance activities. Surveillance was conducted at 34 points of entry, 12 sites serving vehicular traffic and two sites of used tyre importers. The most common native mosquito recorded was Culex pipiens s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae). The invasive mosquito Ae. albopictus was detected on three occasions in southern England (September 2016, July 2017 and July 2018) and subsequent control strategies were conducted. These latest surveillance results demonstrate ongoing incursions of Ae. albopictus into the U.K. via ground vehicular traffic, which can be expected to continue and increase as populations in nearby countries expand, particularly in France, which is the main source of ex-continental traffic.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank Howard Tolley, Microbiological Services, Public Health England (PHE), for conducting the scanning electron microscopy imaging, and Angeline Walker and Anita Turley, PHE Kent, for their support and commitment to responding to findings of Aedes albopictus in Kent. The authors gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for conducting mosquito sampling: Ivan Forsythe and Joe Larkin (Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast) for operating the traps; Timothy McKillen [senior port health officer (PHO), Belfast Port]; Jonathan Guy (Department of Agriculture, Environmental and Rural Affairs Belfast Portal Inspection); Chris Sturgeon [Belfast Docks Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) Reserve]; Jane Day (PHO, Bristol); Rowan Hughes [environmental health officer (EHO), Cardiff Airport]; Owain Williams (EHO, Cardiff Seaport); Nick Wellington and Kathryn Rogers (EHOs, Doncaster Airport); Jenny Allsop (EHO, Port of Dover); Carol Thorogood (PHO, Port of Falmouth); Laurence Jarrold (PHO, Port of Felixstowe); Iain Pocknell (PHO, Gatwick Airport); Brian Lawrie (EHO, Glasgow Prestwick Airport); Phil Park (EHO, Sharpness Docks, Gloucester); Bridget Saunders (PHO, Heathrow Airport); Andre Hunt (EHO, Heysham and Glasson Docks); Laurence Dettman (PHO, Hull and Goole Port); Martin Walker (PHO, Port of Ipswich); Joe Smyth and Glyn Cavell (PHOs, Liverpool Docks); Louis Franks (PHO, London Gateway); Phil Quinlan (EHO, Manchester Airport); Lynnette Crossley (PHO, Port of Manchester); Carwyn Thomas (EHO, Port of Milford Haven); Kimberley Rennick (PHO, Newport Port); Gill Morgan (PHO, Swansea and Port Talbot); David Jones (PHO, Portsmouth Port); Sue Verity (PHO, Port of Teeside); John Arthurs, (PHO, Stansted Airport); Chong-Him Ong (PHO, Port of Tilbury), and Steve Ireland (EHO, Weymouth and Portland). The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
© 2019 The Royal Entomological Society
- Aedes aegypti
- Aedes albopictus
- Aedes egg
- mosquito control
- mosquito surveillance