Standardized nonculture techniques recommended for European reference laboratories

Andrew Fox, Muhamed Kheir Taha*, Ulrich Vogel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Culture-confirmed diagnosis of meningococcal invasive infections is often hindered by early antibiotic treatment. Nonculture molecular standardized methods are now essential tools for the immediate management of meningococcal infections. The European Monitoring Group on Meningococci (EMGM) recommends the following measures. (1) The implementation of standardized protocols of extraction methods for DNA isolation from clinical specimens for PCR-based identification and genogrouping of Neisseria meningitidis. (2) The use of molecular approaches (sequencing of target genes) for the determination of meningococcal susceptibility to antibiotics, such as sequencing of penA and rpoB genes for susceptibility to penicillin G and rifampicin, respectively. (3) The use of nonculture strain characterization by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence typing of porA and fetA. These approaches can be implemented either by individual reference laboratories or through collaboration and referral between centres.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-88
Number of pages5
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007


  • Molecular diagnosis
  • Molecular typing
  • Neisseria meningitidis


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