Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain: A follow-up study

Susan Chinn*, Deborah Jarvis, Roberto Melotti, Christina Luczynska, Ursula Ackermann-Liebrich, Josep M. Antó, Isa Cerveri, Roberto De Marco, Thorarinn Gislason, Joachim Heinrich, Christer Janson, Nino Künzli, Bénédicte Leynaert, Françoise Neukirch, Jan Schouten, Jordi Sunyer, Cecilie Svanes, Paul Vermeire, Matthias Wjst, Peter Burney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

139 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in ventilatory lung function in the international European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: 6654 participants in 27 centres had lung function measured in 1991-93, when aged 20-44 years, and in 1998-2002. Smoking information was obtained from detailed questionnaires. Changes in lung function were analysed by change in smoking and weight, adjusted for age and height, in men and women separately and together with interaction terms. Findings: Compared with those who had never smoked, decline in FEV1 was lower in male sustained quitters (mean difference 5·4 mL per year, 95% CI 1·7 to 9·1) and those who quit between surveys (2·5 mL, -1·9 to 7·0), and greater in smokers (-4·8 mL, -7·9 to -1·6). In women, estimates were 1·3 mL per year (-1·5 to 4·1), 2·8 mL (-0·8 to 6·3) and -5·1 mL (-7·5 to -2·8), respectively. These sex differences were not significant. FEV1 changed by -11·5 mL (-13·3 to -9·6) per kg weight gained in men, and by -3·7 mL per kg (-5·0 to -2·5) in women, which diminished the benefit of quitting by 38% in men, and by 17% in women. Interpretation: Smoking cessation is beneficial for lung function, but maximum benefit needs control of weight gain, especially in men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1629-1635
Number of pages7
JournalThe Lancet
Volume365
Issue number9471
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2005
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The following bodies funded ECRHS I for centres in ECRHS II: Belgian Science Policy Office, National Fund for Scientific Research; Ministère de la Santé, Glaxo France, Insitut Pneumologique d'Aquitaine, Contrat de Plan Etat-Région Languedoc-Rousillon, CNMATS, CNMRT (90MR/10, 91AF/6), Ministre delegué de la santé, RNSP, France; GSF, and the Bundesminister für Forschung und Technologie, Bonn, Germany; Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica, CNR, Regione Veneto grant RSF n. 381/05.93, Italy; Norwegian Research Council project no. 101422/310; Dutch Ministry of Wellbeing, Public Health and Culture, Netherlands; Ministero Sanidad y Consumo FIS (grants #91/0016060/00E-05E and #93/0393), and grants from Hospital General de Albacete, Hospital General Juan Ramón Jiménenz, Consejeria de Sanidad Principado de Asturias, Spain; The Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, the Swedish Association against Asthma and Allergy; Swiss National Science Foundation grant 4026-28099; National Asthma Campaign, British Lung Foundation, Department of Health, South Thames Regional Health Authority, UK; United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare Public Health Service (grant #2 S07 RR05521-28).

Funding Information:
The coordination of ECRHS II was supported by the European Commission, as part of their Quality of Life programme. The following bodies funded the local studies in ECRHS II in this article. Albacete—Fondo de Investigaciones Santarias (grant code: 97/0035-01, 99/0034-01, and 99/0034-02), Hospital Universitario de Albacete, Consejeria de Sanidad. Antwerp—FWO (Fund for Scientific Research)-Flanders Belgium (grant code: G.0402.00), University of Antwerp, Flemish Health Ministry. Barcelona—Fondo de Investigaciones Santarias (grant code: 99/0034-01, and 99/0034-02), Red Respira (RTIC 03/11 ISC IIF). Basel—Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Office for Education & Science, Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA). Bergen—Norwegian Research Council, Norwegian Asthma & Allergy Association (NAAF), Glaxo Wellcome AS, Norway Research Fund. Bordeaux—Institut Pneumologique d'Aquitaine. Erfurt—GSF–National Research Centre for Environment & Health, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (grant code FR 1526/1-1). Galdakao—Basque Health Department. Goteborg—Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Swedish Foundation for Health Care Sciences & Allergy Research, Swedish Asthma & Allergy Foundation, Swedish Cancer & Allergy Foundation. Grenoble—Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-DRC de Grenoble 2000 no. 2610, Ministry of Health, Direction de la Recherche Clinique, Ministere de l'Emploi et de la Solidarite, Direction Generale de la Sante, CHU de Grenoble, Comite des Maladies Respiratoires de l'Isere. Hamburg—GSF–National Reasearch Centre for Environment & Health, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (grant code MA 711/4-1). Ipswich and Norwich—National Asthma Campaign (UK). Huelva—Fondo de Investigaciones Santarias (FIS) (grant code: 97/0035-01, 99/0034-01, and 99/0034-02). Montpellier—Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-DRC de Grenoble 2000 no. 2610, Ministry of Health, Direction de la Recherche Clinique, CHU de Grenoble, Ministere de l'Emploi et de la Solidarite, Direction Generale de la Sante, Aventis (France), Direction Régionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales Languedoc-Roussillon. Oviedo—Fondo de Investigaciones Santarias (FIS) (grant code: 97/0035-01, 99/0034-01, and 99/0034-02). Paris—Ministere de l'Emploi et de la Solidarite, Direction Generale de la Sante, UCB-Pharma (France), Aventis (France), Glaxo France, Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique-DRC de Grenoble 2000 no. 2610, Ministry of Health, Direction de la Recherche Clinique, CHU de Grenoble. Pavia—Glaxo-SmithKline Italy, Italian Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research (MURST), Local University Funding for Research 1998 & 1999 (Pavia, Italy). Portland—American Lung Association of Oregon, Northwest Health Foundation, Collins Foundation, Merck Pharmaceutical. Reykjavik—Icelandic Research Council, Icelandic University Hospital Fund. Tartu—Estonian Science Foundation. Turin—ASL 4 Regione Piemonte (Italy), AO CTO/ICORMA Regione Piemonte (Italy), Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica (Italy), Glaxo Wellcome spa (Verona, Italy). Umeå—Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Swedish Foundation for Health Care Sciences & Allergy Research, Swedish Asthma & Allergy Foundation, Swedish Cancer & Allergy Foundation. Uppsala—Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, Swedish Foundation for Health Care Sciences & Allergy Research, Swedish Asthma & Allergy Foundation, Swedish Cancer & Allergy Foundation. Verona—University of Verona; Italian Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research (MURST); Glaxo-SmithKline Italy.

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