Selection of bone dosimetry models for application in Monte Carlo simulations to provide CT scanner-specific organ dose coefficients

Jan T.M. Jansen*, Paul Shrimpton, John Holroyd, Sue Edyvean

*Corresponding author for this work

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4 Citations (Scopus)


This is the second paper arising from a project concerning the application of Monte Carlo simulations to provide scanner-specific organ dose coefficients for modern CT scanners. The present focus is centred on the bone dosimetry models that have been developed. Simulations have been performed in photon only transport mode, with the assumption of electron equilibrium. This approximation breaks down for doses to active marrow and endosteum since the target cells are localised within tens of micrometre from bone tissue and dose enhancement functions are necessary to correct for the additional dose from photoelectric electrons created in adjacent material. The dose enhancement models used previously in publications NRPB-SR250 (Jones and Shrimpton 1993 Software Report NRPB-SR250, National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, UK) and ORNL-TM8381 (Cristy and Eckerman 1987 Technical Report Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN) have been implemented and compared with the contemporary approaches of Johnson et al (2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 2347-65) and ICRP Publication 116 (ICRP 2010 Ann. ICRP 40 1-257) that are being adopted in the present project. In addition, the calculation of dose to endosteum in the medullary cavity is reviewed and updated using electron mode simulations. For the purposes of quality assurance and comparison, the various dose enhancement functions have been applied in relation to the NRPB18+DJ and HPA18+ stylised hermaphrodite phantoms and also the adult male and female voxel phantoms recommended in ICRP Publication 110 (ICRP 2009 Ann. ICRP 39 1-165), for exposure from three CT scanners modelled previously. Contemporary results for standard examinations on the head and trunk calculated for these latter phantoms demonstrate moderate increases (modal value +18%) in active marrow dose coefficients relative to values derived from data published in NRPB-SR250. A similar analysis in relation to endosteum dose coefficients shows larger reductions (modal value -46%), owing at least in part to changes in assumed location of the target cells. Even larger changes are apparent for both of these dose coefficients in relation to examination of the upper legs (-39% and -94%, respectively). However, resultant changes in any values of effective dose will be less owing to the low weighting factors applied for these tissues.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125015
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Crown copyright. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


  • CT scanner
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • bone dosimetry
  • dose enhancement factors
  • stylised and voxel phantoms


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