Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe

B. Alten, Y. Ozbel, K. Ergunay, O. E. Kasap, Benjamin Cull, M. Antoniou, E. Velo, J. Prudhomme, R. Molina, A. L. Banuls, F. Schaffner, G. Hendrickx, W. Van Bortel, Jolyon Medlock*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)664-678
Number of pages15
JournalBulletin of Entomological Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Cambridge University Press.


  • Europe
  • Phlebotomus
  • sampling
  • sand flies


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