Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific and heterologous immune responses in vaccine-naïve residents of long-term care facilities who survive natural infection

Gokhan Tut*, Tara Lancaster, Megan S. Butler, Panagiota Sylla, Eliska Spalkova, David Bone, Nayandeep Kaur, Christopher Bentley, Umayr Amin, Azar T. Jadir, Samuel Hulme, Morenike Ayodel, Alexander C. Dowell, Hayden Pearce, Jianmin Zuo, Sandra Margielewska-Davies, Kriti Verma, Samantha Nicol, Jusnara Begum, Elizabeth JinksElif Tut, Rachel Bruton, Maria Krutikov, Madhumita Shrotri, Rebecca Giddings, Borscha Azmi, Chris Fuller, Aidan Irwin-Singer, Andrew Hayward, Andrew Copas, Laura Shallcross, Paul Moss

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We studied humoral and cellular immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 152 long-term care facility staff and 124 residents over a prospective 4-month period shortly after the first wave of infection in England. We show that residents of long-term care facilities developed high and stable levels of antibodies against spike protein and receptor-binding domain. Nucleocapsid-specific responses were also elevated but waned over time. Antibodies showed stable and equivalent levels of functional inhibition against spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding in all age groups with comparable activity against viral variants of concern. SARS-CoV-2 seropositive donors showed high levels of antibodies to other beta-coronaviruses but serostatus did not impact humoral immunity to influenza or other respiratory syncytial viruses. SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular responses were similar across all ages but virus-specific populations showed elevated levels of activation in older donors. Thus, survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection show a robust and stable immunity against the virus that does not negatively impact responses to other seasonal viruses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-547
Number of pages12
JournalNature Aging
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the staff and residents in the LTCFs who participated in this study and M. Marshall at NHS England who pseudonymized the electronic health records. This report is independent research funded by the Department of Health and Social Care (COVID-19 surveillance studies). A.H. is supported by Health Data Research UK (grant no. LOND1), which is funded by the UK Medical Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Department of Health and Social Care (England), Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates, Health and Social Care Research and Development Division (Welsh Government), Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland), British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust. L.S. is funded by an NIHR Clinician Scientist Award (no. CS-2016-007). M.K. is funded by a Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Fellowship (no. 222907/Z/21/Z). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, Public Health England or the UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.

Funding Information:
We thank the staff and residents in the LTCFs who participated in this study and M. Marshall at NHS England who pseudonymized the electronic health records. This report is independent research funded by the Department of Health and Social Care (COVID-19 surveillance studies). A.H. is supported by Health Data Research UK (grant no. LOND1), which is funded by the UK Medical Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Department of Health and Social Care (England), Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health and Social Care Directorates, Health and Social Care Research and Development Division (Welsh Government), Public Health Agency (Northern Ireland), British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust. L.S. is funded by an NIHR Clinician Scientist Award (no. CS-2016-007). M.K. is funded by a Wellcome Trust Clinical PhD Fellowship (no. 222907/Z/21/Z). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, Public Health England or the UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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