Robotic-assisted ultrasound for fetal imaging: Evolution from single-arm to dual-arm system

Shuangyi Wang*, James Housden, Yohan Noh, Davinder Singh, Anisha Singh, Emily Skelton, Jacqueline Matthew, Cornelius Tan, Junghwan Back, Lukas Lindenroth, Alberto Gomez, Nicolas Toussaint, Veronika Zimmer, Caroline Knight, Tara Fletcher, David Lloyd, John Simpson, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Hongbin Liu, Kaspar AlthoeferJoseph Hajnal, Reza Razavi, Kawal Rhode

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The development of robotic-assisted extracorporeal ultrasound systems has a long history and a number of projects have been proposed since the 1990s focusing on different technical aspects. These aim to resolve the deficiencies of on-site manual manipulation of hand-held ultrasound probes. This paper presents the recent ongoing developments of a series of bespoke robotic systems, including both single-arm and dual-arm versions, for a project known as intelligent Fetal Imaging and Diagnosis (iFIND). After a brief review of the development history of the extracorporeal ultrasound robotic system used for fetal and abdominal examinations, the specific aim of the iFIND robots, the design evolution, the implementation details of each version, and the initial clinical feedback of the iFIND robot series are presented. Based on the preliminary testing of these newly-proposed robots on 42 volunteers, the successful and reliable working of the mechatronic systems were validated. Analysis of a participant questionnaire indicates a comfortable scanning experience for the volunteers and a good acceptance rate to being scanned by the robots.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards Autonomous Robotic Systems - 20th Annual Conference, TAROS 2019, Proceedings
EditorsKaspar Althoefer, Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Ketao Zhang
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783030253318
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event20th Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems Conference, TAROS 2019 - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 3 Jul 20195 Jul 2019

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11650 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference20th Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems Conference, TAROS 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Paper approved by the Editor for Communication Networks of the IEEE Communications Society. Manuscript received November 12, 1989; revised April 8,1991 and September 11, 1991. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory under Contract NOOO14-86-C-2056. This paper was presented at the 1988 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM '88), San Diego, CA, October 23-26, 1988. Some additional work was presented at the 1989 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM '89), Boston, MA, October 15-18, 1989. M. D. Noakes was with Harris Corporation, Melbourne, FL. He is now with the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. J. B. Cain and J. W. Nieto are with Harris Corporation, Melbourne, FL 32902. E.L. Althouse is with the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375. IEEE Log Number 9209506.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.


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