Rapporteur report: Roundup, discussion and recommendations

Zenon Sienkiewicz*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    There is a relative paucity of recent information regarding the long-term health effects associated with exposure to ultrasound, and to infrasound and low-frequency noise (LFN). For ultrasound, further epidemiological studies are recommended, and priority should be given to studies investigating the effects of handedness and to studies assessing possible subtle effects on brain function. These studies should reflect contemporary practises in diagnostic ultrasound and have sufficiently long follow-up periods to examine the possibility of effects into late adolescence or beyond. In the absence of a non-exposed control group, it would be advisable to make comparisons between a highly exposed group with a less exposed group, and to compare groups exposed at differing gestational stages. The effects associated with ultrasound contrast agents should also be studied, and the appropriateness of the thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI) should be reviewed. It is recommended that animal models should be used to investigate the effects of exposure at differing gestational ages on development, and modern cellular and molecular techniques used to investigate potential mechanisms of interaction. Although explicit morphological changes have been reported following occupational and experimental exposures to infrasound and low LFN, it was recommended that a thorough review of the relevant biological and health effects literature was necessary before specific proposals could be made. Uncertainties about the characterisation of these low frequencies also indicated the need to develop appropriate measurement techniques and protocols.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)414-420
    Number of pages7
    JournalProgress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
    Issue number1-3
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007


    • Exposure guidelines
    • Future research
    • Health effects
    • Infrasound
    • Ultrasound


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