Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-efficient methods for protecting people with multiple sclerosis (MS) from infections. However, use of vaccines has often been problematic because of misguided concerns that they may exacerbate the disease and/or that some disease-modifying therapies may influence the immune response to immunisations and/or their safety. People with MS risk higher morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable infections. It is, therefore, important to address any patient's reluctance to accept vaccination and to provide clear guidance for clinicians on which vaccinations to consider proactively. We have reviewed the current literature and provide recommendations regarding vaccines in adults with MS, including specific advice regarding vaccination safety in patients receiving-or going to receive-disease-modifying therapies, vaccination during pregnancy, pretravel counselling and patient education.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Twitter G Giovannoni @gavingiovannoni. Acknowledgements We thank ECTRIMS (European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis) for supporting SR through their MS clinical training fellowship programme. We also thank the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) and its members for their input into the development of the travel immunisation recommendations.
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- Infectious Diseases
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- Magnetic Stimulation
- Multiple Sclerosis
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- Trigeminal Neuralgia