Premature mortality from cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Caribbean and associations with health care expenditure, 2001 - 2011

Ahmed Razavi*, Ian Hambleton, T. Alafia Samuels, Natasha Sobers, Nigel Unwin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. To examine the historical trends of premature death due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (CVD-DM) in the Caribbean and to identify any associations between these trends and health care expenditure. Methods. Death data were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database; population data, from the United Nations World Population prospects; and health care expenditure data, from the World Bank. In all, 17 Caribbean countries had mortality data; however, only 11 had both mortality and health care expenditure data available. The analyses explored country-level trends in age-standardized CVD-DM mortality rates using 3-year moving averages from 1995 - 2014 for women and men. Associations between secular mortality rate change and health care expenditure were considered. Results. CVD-DM mortality rates ranged from 10.7 - 247.1 per 100 000, with a mean of 92.3 and standard deviation of 47.6. Of the 17 countries, 12 showed a reduction in premature CVD-DM mortality in both men and women, with others either showing no improvement or increases. Mortality rates for men were 1.46 times higher than for women. On average, there was a 68% increase in health care expenditure, with a 15.4% fall in CVD-DM mortality in women and 4.9% in men. Mixed effects modelling demonstrated a weak association between health care expenditure and declining CVD-DM mortality for both women -0.006 (95%CI = -0.014 - 0.001) and men -0.008 (95%CI = -0.017 - 0.001). Conclusions. Findings suggest that progress has been made to reduce premature CVD-DM related mortality in a number of Caribbean countries. Differences between countries may be partly related to differences in health care system performance, although further research that considers confounders is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere179
JournalRevista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Pan American Health Organization. All rights reserved.


  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Caribbean Region
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Health expenditures
  • Mortality


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