Pregestational diabetes is associated with adverse outcomes in twin pregnancies: A regional register-based study

Joanne Darke, Svetlana V. Glinianaia, Philippa Marsden, Ruth Bell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction The incidence of pregnancies complicated by twinning and diabetes is increasing in the UK. This is a worrying trend as both diabetes and twin gestations are associated with a high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The few studies that have specifically addressed how twinning and pregestational diabetes in the same pregnancy may affect outcome have reported conflicting results. Material and methods We analyzed data on 27 women with a twin pregnancy and pregestational diabetes (54 babies) and 6407 women with a twin pregnancy without diabetes (12 814 babies) from the Northern Survey of Twin and Multiple Pregnancy during 1998-2010. A composite adverse pregnancy outcome (comprising fetal loss before 24 weeks, termination of pregnancy, stillbirth, infant death or any major congenital anomaly), extended perinatal mortality (stillbirths and neonatal deaths) and major congenital anomaly were the main outcome measures. Adjusted rate ratios were estimated using generalized estimating equations for Poisson regression controlling for potential confounders. Results Mothers with twin pregnancies with diabetes were older (p = 0.001) and had higher body mass indices (p < 0.0001) than those without diabetes. Their twins were more likely to be delivered earlier (p = 0.026), be delivered by cesarean section (80.4% vs. 49.7%; p < 0.0001), be large-for-gestational-age (p < 0.0001) and require admission to a special care baby unit (p < 0.0001). Pregestational diabetes was associated with significantly increased rates of the composite adverse outcome and major congenital anomalies in twins (adjusted rate ratios 2.66, 95% confidence interval 1.14-6.20 and adjusted rate ratios 3.51, 95% confidence interval 1.31-9.40, respectively). Conclusion Maternal pregestational diabetes in twin pregnancies is associated with a significantly increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
NorDIP and the PMMS were funded by the four Primary Care Trusts in North East England. NorCAS was funded by the UK Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership. The Regional Maternity Survey Office is part of Public Health England.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • perinatal outcomes
  • pregestational diabetes mellitus
  • twin pregnancy
  • twins
  • type 1 diabetes
  • type 2 diabetes


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