Changes in the receptor binding characteristics of human H3N2 viruses have been evident from changes in the agglutination of different red blood cells (RBCs) and the reduced growth capacity of recently isolated viruses, particularly in embryonated eggs. An additional peculiarity of viruses circulating in 2005 to 2009 has been the poor inhibition of hemagglutination by postinfection ferret antisera for many viruses isolated in MDCK cells, including homologous reference viruses. This was shown not to be due to an antigenic change in hemagglutinin (HA) but was shown to be the result of a mutation in aspartic acid 151 of neuraminidase (NA) to glycine, asparagine, or alanine, which caused an oseltamivir-sensitive agglutination of RBCs. The D151G substitution was shown to cause a change in the specificity of NA such that it acquired the capacity to bind receptors, which were refractory to enzymatic cleavage, without altering its ability to remove receptors for HA. Thus, the inhibition of NA-dependent agglutination by the inclusion of oseltamivir carboxylate in the assay was effective in restoring the anti-HA specificity of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for monitoring antigenic changes in HA. Since the NA-dependent binding activity did not affect virus neutralization, and virus populations in clinical specimens possessed, at most, low levels of the "151 mutant," the biological significance of this feature of NA in, for example, immune evasion is unclear. It is apparent, however, that an important role of aspartic acid 151 in the activity of NA may be to restrict the specificity of the NA interaction and its receptor-destroying activity to complement that of HA receptor binding.