Multiplex Human Papillomavirus L1L2 virus-like particle antibody binding assay

Kavita Panwar, Anna Godi, Clementina E. Cocuzza, Nick Andrews, Jo Southern, Paul Turner, Elizabeth Miller, Simon Beddows*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


A variety of in vitro techniques are available to estimate the level of antibodies present in human serum samples. Such tests are highly specific and are used to determine prior exposure to a pathogen or to estimate the magnitude, breadth and durability of individual and population level vaccine immunity. Multiplex (or multi-analyte) platforms are increasingly being used to evaluate immune responses against multiple antigens at the same time, usually at reduced per sample cost and a more efficient use of available samples. Consequently, multiplex serology is an essential component of a wide range of public health programmes. Human papillomavirus (HPV) serology is limited to a small number of academic, public health and vaccine manufacturer laboratories globally. Such platforms include indirect binding to the major (L1) capsid protein virus-like particles (VLP), monoclonal antibody competition against L1 VLP and indirect binding to L1 and L2 (minor capsid protein) VLP on multiplex (Luminex®, Meso Scale Discovery®) and standard (ELISA) platforms. The methodology described here utilizes a common multi-analyte platform and L1L2-based VLP expressed in house, which allows the simultaneous detection and quantification of antibody responses against nine vaccine-relevant HPV genotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101776
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the UK Health Security Agency.

Funding Information:
We are indebted to Prof. John T. Schiller and Dr. Chris Buck (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. U.S.A.) for the psheLL L1L2 vector used to make the L1L2 antigens used for this method. We thank Drs Ligia Pinto and Troy Kemp of Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. MD. U.S.A. as the source of nonavalent vaccine serum used to make the standards and IQC. We thank Busayo Elegunde, Ayesha Febis and Farida Abdulkadir for their excellent technical assistance with the execution of this work. This work was supported by the UK Health Security Agency.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


  • Antibody
  • Binding
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Multiplex Human Papillomavirus L1L2 virus-like particle antibody binding assay
  • Vaccine


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