Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)

John Gulliver*, Paul Elliott, John Henderson, Anna L. Hansell, Danielle Vienneau, Yutong Cai, Adrienne McCrea, Kevin Garwood, Andy Boyd, Lucy Neal, Paul Agnew, Daniela Fecht, David Briggs, Kees de Hoogh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We established air pollution modelling to study particle (PM10) exposures during pregnancy and infancy (1990–1993) through childhood and adolescence up to age ~15 years (1991–2008) for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. For pregnancy trimesters and infancy (birth to 6 months; 7 to 12 months) we used local (ADMS-Urban) and regional/long-range (NAME-III) air pollution models, with a model constant for local, non-anthropogenic sources. For longer exposure periods (annually and the average of birth to age ~8 and to age ~15 years to coincide with relevant follow-up clinics) we assessed spatial contrasts in local sources of PM10 with a yearly-varying concentration for all background sources. We modelled PM10 (μg/m3) for 36,986 address locations over 19 years and then accounted for changes in address in calculating exposures for different periods: trimesters/infancy (n = 11,929); each year of life to age ~15 (n = 10,383). Intra-subject exposure contrasts were largest between pregnancy trimesters (5th to 95th centile: 24.4–37.3 μg/m3) and mostly related to temporal variability in regional/long-range PM10. PM10 exposures fell on average by 11.6 μg/m3 from first year of life (mean concentration = 31.2 μg/m3) to age ~15 (mean = 19.6 μg/m3), and 5.4 μg/m3 between follow-up clinics (age ~8 to age ~15). Spatial contrasts in 8-year average PM10 exposures (5th to 95th centile) were relatively low: 25.4–30.0 μg/m3 to age ~8 years and 20.7–23.9 μg/m3 from age ~8 to age ~15 years. The contribution of local sources to total PM10 was 18.5%–19.5% during pregnancy and infancy, and 14.4%–17.0% for periods leading up to follow-up clinics. Main roads within the study area contributed on average ~3.0% to total PM10 exposures in all periods; 9.5% of address locations were within 50 m of a main road. Exposure estimates will be used in a number of planned epidemiological studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-19
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironment International
Volume113
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was supported by The UK Medical Research Council / Wellcome Trust (Grant ref.: 102215/2/13/2 ), the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. The work of the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit is funded by Public Health England as part of the MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, funded also by the UK Medical Research Council (Grant ref.: MR/L01341X/1). This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of Public Health England or the Department of Health.

Funding Information:
We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (Grant ref.: 102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. This publication is the work of the authors and John Gulliver, Paul Elliott, and John Henderson will serve as guarantors for the contents of this paper. This research was specifically funded by The UK Medical Research Council: “Effects Of Early Life Exposure To Particulates On Respiratory Health Through Childhood And Adolescence: ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study” Grant Ref: G0700920. We thank Bristol City Council for providing data on traffic flows/speeds and emission rates for the ALSPAC study area. Paul Elliott acknowledges support of the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London, and the NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards (HPRU-2012-10141). Yutong Cai acknowledges support from the Early-Career Research Fellowship awarded by the UK Medical Research Council–Public Health England Centre for Environment and Health (Grant number MR/M501669/1).

Funding Information:
We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (Grant ref.: 102215/2/13/2 ) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. This publication is the work of the authors and John Gulliver, Paul Elliott, and John Henderson will serve as guarantors for the contents of this paper. This research was specifically funded by The UK Medical Research Council : “Effects Of Early Life Exposure To Particulates On Respiratory Health Through Childhood And Adolescence: ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study”, Grant Ref: G0700920 . We thank Bristol City Council for providing data on traffic flows/speeds and emission rates for the ALSPAC study area. Paul Elliott acknowledges support of the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and Imperial College London , and the NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards ( HPRU-2012-10141 ). Yutong Cai acknowledges support from the Early-Career Research Fellowship awarded by the UK Medical Research Council – Public Health England Centre for Environment and Health (Grant number MR/M501669/1 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Authors

Keywords

  • ALSPAC
  • Air pollution
  • Dispersion modelling
  • Exposure assessment
  • Mother-child
  • PM

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