Interventions to increase rescreening for repeat chlamydial infection

Rebecca Guy, Jane Hocking, Nicola Low, Hammad Ali, Heidi M. Bauer, Jenny Walker, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Basil Donovan, John M. Kaldor*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis following treatment is common and increases the risk of sequelae. Despite clinical guidelines recommending rescreening within 3 months of treatment, rescreening rates remain low. We undertook a systematic review to identify studies that compared rates of rescreening for repeat chlamydial infection between patients receiving and not receiving an intervention. Methods: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and conference Web sites from 2000 to September 2010 using variations of the terms "chlamydia" and "rescreening" and "intervention." We used meta-analysis to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) effect on rescreening rates by study design and strategy type. Results: We identified 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 controlled observational studies, all conducted in the United States. Four RCTs assessed mailed screening kits ± reminders, with an average effect estimate of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.50); 2 RCTs assessed motivational interviewing ± reminders with a summary effect of 2.15 (95% CI: 0.92-3.37); one RCT evaluated the effect of reminders with a RR of 9.67 (95% CI: 1.31-71.31), and another RCT assessed the effect of a $20 patient incentive with a RR of 1.16 (95% CI: 0.62-2.17). Three controlled observational studies assessed reminder strategies with RRs of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.76-2.21), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.66-1.55), and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.58-2.24)-a summary effect was not calculated due to significant heterogeneity; and one controlled observational study assessed the promotion of clinical guidelines with a RR of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.96-1.90). Conclusion: The review suggests that the use of mailed screening kits is an important strategy to increase rescreening, reminder systems are promising, and motivational interviewing is worth investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-146
Number of pages11
JournalSexually Transmitted Diseases
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


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