International promotion of e-Bug, an infection prevention and control educational intervention: Survey of partners across 14 countries

Catherine Hayes*, Vicki Young, Carla Brown, Pia Touboul Lundgren, Dimitra Gennimata, Jette Holt, Egbert Weisheit, Arantza Rico, Carlos Garcia, Paola de Castro, Cliodna A.M. McNulty

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health. e-Bug is an educational resource developed and promoted by a network of international partners. e-Bug seeks to reduce the spread of infection and use of antimicrobials in young people and the community, so helping to control AMR. This study aimed to explore how e-Bug is promoted by international partners and observe barriers to promotion, including the extent of education about antibiotics in schools. Methods: A total of 29 e-Bug partners were invited to complete online questionnaires on (i) methods they use to promote e-Bug; and (ii) antibiotic topics covered in the national curriculum in their countries. Results: Fourteen and 15 of 29 e-Bug partners across Europe and Palestine completed the promotional activities and curriculum questionnaires respectively. The most frequently reported methods of promotion included endorsement and collaboration with government and non-government sectors and involvement in national and global health awareness campaigns. Barriers to promotion included a lack of time and funding. The curriculum survey data showed variation in antibiotic education across Europe and Palestine, lack of antibiotic education for children under 11 years of age and little change in antibiotic topics included in the curriculum since 2006. Conclusions: Future and existing e-Bug partners should be encouraged to follow promotional activities reported in this paper, including ministry endorsement, educator training, international campaigns and youth pro-grammes. We encourage all countries to increase antibiotic topics in the school curriculum across all ages.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJAC-Antimicrobial Resistance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.


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