Interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness: Six European studies, September 2019 to January 2020

European IVE group, Angela Rose*, Esther Kissling, Hanne Dorthe Emborg, Amparo Larrauri, Jim McMenamin, Francisco Pozo, Ramona Trebbien, Clara Mazagatos, Heather Whitaker, Marta Valenciano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating in Europe between September 2019 and January 2020. 

Aim: To provide interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from six European studies, covering 10 countries and both primary care and hospital settings. 

Methods: All studies used the test-negative design, although there were some differences in other study characteristics, e.g. patient selection, data sources, case definitions and included age groups. Overall and influenza (sub)type-specific VE was estimated for each study using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. 

Results: There were 31,537 patients recruited across the six studies, of which 5,300 (17%) were cases with 5,310 infections. Most of these (4,466; 84%) were influenza A. The VE point estimates for all ages were 29% to 61% against any influenza in the primary care setting and 35% to 60% in hospitalised older adults (aged 65 years and over). The VE point estimates against A(H1N1)pdm09 (all ages, both settings) was 48% to 75%, and against A(H3N2) ranged from -58% to 57% (primary care) and -16% to 60% (hospital). Against influenza B, VE for all ages was 62% to 83% (primary care only). Conclusions: Influenza vaccination is of continued benefit during the ongoing 2019/20 influenza season. Robust end-of-season VE estimates and genetic virus characterisation results may help understand the variability in influenza (sub) type-specific results across studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2000153
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: ECDC contributed to funding some of the study sites and the coordination of the EU-PC study. WHO/Europe contributed to funding the EU-H study. Epiconcept contributed to funding the EU-H study.

Open Access: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) Licence. You may share and adapt the material, but must give appropriate credit to the source, provide a link to the licence and indicate if changes were made.

Publisher Copyright: This article is copyright of the authors or their affiliated institutions, 2020.

Citation: Rose Angela, Kissling Esther, Emborg Hanne-Dorthe, Larrauri Amparo, McMenamin Jim, Pozo Francisco, Trebbien Ramona, Mazagatos Clara, Whitaker Heather, Valenciano Marta, European IVE group. Interim 2019/20 influenza vaccine effectiveness: six European studies, September 2019 to January 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10):pii=2000153.



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