Indicators to support local public health to reduce the impacts of heat on health

Peninah Murage*, Shakoor Hajat, Helen L. Macintyre, Giovanni S. Leonardi, Priyanjali Ratwatte, Helena Wehling, Giorgos Petrou, Michael Higlett, Angela Hands, Sari Kovats

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Heat exposure presents a significant weather-related health risk in England and Wales, and is associated with acute impacts on mortality and adverse effects on a range of clinical conditions, as well as increased healthcare costs. Most heat-related health outcomes are preventable with health protection measures such as behavioural changes, individual cooling actions, and strategies implemented at the landscape level or related to improved urban infrastructure. We review current limitations in reporting systems and propose ten indicators to monitor changes in heat exposures, vulnerabilities, heat-health outcomes, and progress on adaptation actions. These indicators can primarily inform local area decision-making in managing risks across multiple sectors such as public health, adult and social care, housing, urban planning, and education. The indicators can be used alongside information on other vulnerabilities relevant for heat and health such as underlying morbidity or housing characteristics, to prioritise the most effective adaptation actions for those who need it the most.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108391
JournalEnvironment International
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

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  • Climate change adaptation
  • Epidemiology
  • Health indicators
  • Heat exposure
  • Temperature


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