The rise in gonococcal antibiotic resistance and the threat of untreatable infection are focusing attention on strategies to limit the spread of drug-resistant gonorrhea. Mathematical models provide a framework to link the natural history of infection and patient behavior to epidemiological outcomes and can be used to guide research and enhance the public health impact of interventions. While limited knowledge of key disease parameters and networks of spread has impeded development of operational models of gonococcal transmission, new tools in gonococcal surveillance may provide useful data to aid tracking and modeling. Here, we highlight critical questions in the management of gonorrhea that can be addressed by mathematical models and identify key data needs. Our overarching aim is to articulate a shared agenda across gonococcus-related fields from microbiology to epidemiology that will catalyze a comprehensive evidence-based clinical and public health strategy for management of gonococcal infections and antimicrobial resistance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1-K08-AI104767 to Y. H. G.), the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (award U54GM088558 to M. L. and E. G.), the NIH (K01 award 1K01AI101010-01 to E. G.), and the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Modelling Methodology at Imperial College London, in partnership with Public Health England (grant HPRU-2012-10080 to P. J.W.) and the UKMedical Research Council (grant MR/K010174/1 to P. J. W.).
© 2015 The Author. All rights reserved.
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- antibiotic resistance
- mathematical modeling
- sexually transmitted infections