Objectives: We aimed to examine longitudinal changes in left ventricular (LV) structure and function and evaluate factors associated with LV remodelling in children on chronic haemodialysis. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study including all children from the start of chronic haemodialysis with two or more m-mode 2D echocardiograms and tissue Doppler studies. Left ventricular mass (LVM) in g/m2.7, geometry and LV function were compared at baseline (dialysis start) with follow-up studies at least 6 months following commencement. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined if greater than 95th percentile as per age-specific centiles. We also defined LVH as indexed LV mass index (LVMI) > 51 g/m2.7 and using LV mass-for-height z-scores greater than the 95th percentile. Biochemical data, interdialytic weight change and blood pressure level were assessed for their association with change in indexed LVM. Results: Twenty-three of the 32 children < 18 years were included (n = 5, < 5 years) with last follow-up study performed following dialysis after a median (IQR) of 21 (10–34) months. The prevalence of LVH reduced significantly (69.6%, (n = 16/23) vs. 39.1% (n = 9/23), P = 0.002); LV geometry improved (13% concentric and 56.5% eccentric vs. 8.7% and 17.4% respectively) with mean ± SD reduction in indexed LVM (50.8 ± 23.1 g/m2.7 vs. 38.6 ± 14.7 g/m2.7, P = 0.002) and LV mass-for-height z-scores (0.67 ± 1.66 vs. − 0.46 ± 1.88, P = 0.002) from baseline to last follow-up respectively. There was no change in systolic function (LV fractional shortening, 37% vs. 38%, P = 0.39) and diastolic function (mean E/E′ 10.8 vs. 9.0, P = 0.09). Multiple regression analysis identified improved systolic BP control (β = 0.41, P = 0.04) as an independent predictor for change in indexed LVM. Conclusions: LV structure and function can improve in children despite long-term chronic intermittent haemodialysis. Cardiovascular health in this population does not always deteriorate but can be stabilised and indeed improved with optimal blood pressure management.
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© 2019, IPNA.
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