Immunologic Hyporesponsiveness to Serogroup C but Not Serogroup A following Repeated Meningococcal A/C Polysaccharide Vaccination in Saudi Arabia

Hani Jokhdar*, Ray Borrow, Abdulrazaq Sultan, Mousaed Adi, Christine Riley, Emily Fuller, David Baxter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In Saudi Arabia, vaccination with the meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MACP) vaccine is advised every 3 years. A clinical outcome study was performed to test the effect of repeat vaccination with the MACP vaccine on the immune responses among Saudi nationals who live in the Makkah and Jeddah areas. Subjects (n = 230) aged 10 to 29 years were selected: 113 subjects with two or more prior vaccinations with the MACP vaccine, 79 subjects with one prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine, and 38 subjects naïve to vaccination with the MACP vaccine. All subjects received the MACP vaccine in 2002, and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers were measured before and 1 month after vaccination with the MACP vaccine. For serogroup C, geometric mean SBA titers 1 month following vaccination with the MACP vaccine were 708.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 217.5 to 2,308.9) for those naïve to prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine, and they were (P < 0.0001) than 25.0 (95% CI, 12.4 to 50.2) for those who had received one prior vaccination with the MACP vaccine and 32. 4 (95% CI, 18.7 to 56.4) for those who had received two or more doses of the MACP vaccine. For serogroup A, the geometric mean SBA titer 1 month after receipt of the MACP vaccine was 1,649.3 (95% CI, 835.2 to 3,256.9) for those naïve to prior vaccination, and the titers were lower (P = 0.67) than 2,185.7 (95% CI, 1,489.4 to 3,207.7) for those who had received one prior dose of the MACP vaccine and significantly lower (P = 0.042) than 3,540.8 (95% CI, 2,705.2 to 4,634.5) for those who had received two or more doses of the MACP vaccine. For serogroup C, the proportions of nonresponders (SBA titers, <8) were 19% for the naïve cohort, 52% for the cohort with one prior vaccination, and 49% for the cohort with two or more prior vaccinations. Following repeated doses of the MACP vaccine, hyporesponsiveness to serogroup C is evident, with high percentages of MACP vaccinees having SBA titers below the putative protective SBA titer. Serogroup A responses following vaccination with the MACP vaccine were boosted. Introduction of the serogroup C conjugate vaccine would provide long-term protection against serogroup C disease; however, quadrivalent conjugate vaccines are required to provide long-time protection against disease caused by serogroups A, W135, and Y.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-88
Number of pages6
JournalClinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes

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