Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related heart disease: A review

Mahmoud U. Sani, Basil N. Okeahialam, Sani H. Aliyu*, David A. Enoch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in the knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and transmission as well as the emergence of effective anti-retroviral therapies are leading to longer survival times for HIV- infected individuals. As a result, organ related manifestations of late stage HIV infection, including HIV-related heart diseases have emerged. It is now clear that cardiac involvement in HIV seropositive patients is relatively common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement in HIV infection is multifactorial. The epidemiology has changed dramatically since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but studies carried out before the introduction of HAART remain relevant because of limited access to this treatment in many areas of the world. A variety of cardiac lesions have been reported in HIV infection and AIDS, including pericardial disease with effusion and tamponade, nonspecific or infectious myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy with global left ventricular dysfunction, endocardial valvular disease due to marantic or infective endocarditis, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension and neoplastic invasion. In the post HAART-era, coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemia, drug related cardiotoxicity and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are becoming increasingly prevalent. In this review, we highlight the importance of cardiac complications in HIV disease and discuss measures that can be taken to improve survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-81
Number of pages9
JournalWiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005


  • AIDS
  • Anti-retroviral therapy
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • HIV infection
  • Heart disease
  • Highly active


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