Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. Pediatric bacterial meningitis cases < 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July 2005. Cases from the national pediatric hospital were also tracked from 2002 to 2008. The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. Of 214 laboratory-confirmed cases, 108 (50%) were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, 42 (20%) to Hib, and 13 (6%) to Neisseria meningitidis. There was a 98% reduction in the number of hospitalized Hib meningitis cases from Dakar Region in 2008 compared with 2002. The surveillance system provides important information to the Ministry of Health as they consider self-funding Hib vaccine and introducing pneumococcal vaccine.