Fluoroquinolones came into widespread use in African countries in the early 2000s, after patents for the first generation of these drugs expired. By that time, quinolone antibacterial agents had been used intensively worldwide and resistant lineages of many bacterial species had evolved. We sought to understand which Gram negative enteric pandemic lineages have been reported from Africa, as well as the nature and transmission of any indigenous resistant clones. A systematic review of articles indexed in the Medline and AJOL literature databases was conducted. We report on the findings of 43 eligible studies documenting local or pandemic fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric clones in sub-Sahara African countries. Most reports are of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli lineages and there have been three reports of cholera outbreaks caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1. Fluoroquinolone-resistant clones have also been reported from commensals and animal isolates but there are few data for non-Enterobacteriaceae and almost none for difficult-to-culture Campylobacter spp. Fluoroquinolone-resistant lineages identified in African countries were universally resistant to multiple other classes of antibacterial agents. Although as many as 972 non-duplicate articles refer to fluoroquinolone resistance in enteric bacteria from Africa, most do not report on subtypes and therefore information on the epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant clones is available from only a handful of countries in the subcontinent. When resistance is reported, resistance mechanisms and lineage information is rarely investigated. Insufficient attention has been given to molecular and sequence-based methods necessary for identifying and tracking resistant clones in Africa and more research is needed in this area.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 Chattaway, Aboderin, Fashae, Okoro, Opintan and Okeke.
- Antimicrobial resistance
- Escherichia coli
- Fluoroquinolone resistance
- Quinolone resistance
- Vibrio cholerae