The use of molecular methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing in clinical laboratories. External quality assessment enables unbiased monitoring of the performance of laboratories in the detection of specific pathogens. This study details the results of molecular and enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) testing for C. trachomatis detection in simulated endocervical swab specimens recently distributed internationally by United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Microbiology (UK NEQAS for Microbiology) external quality assessment panels. The frequency of accurate detection of C. trachomatis in the panels ranged from 32 to 100%. Participants using molecular methods were significantly more likely to detect C. trachomatis in specimens than those using an EIA. Two strains were distributed with the panels: an L2 laboratory-adapted strain and an uncharacterized primary isolate. Further analysis indicated a difference in detection of C. trachomatis between specific methods only with the L2 strain at lower concentrations. In addition, eight negative specimens were distributed, and false positives were found to be rare by all methods included in the study.