Epidemiology and outcomes of Nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremias from England, 2004 to 2015

Shannon Katiyo*, Berit Muller-Pebody, Mehdi Minaji, David Powell, Alan Johnson, Elizabeth De Pinna, Martin Day, Ross Harris, Gauri Godbolea

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia causes hospitalization and high morbidity and mortality. We linked Gastrointestinal Bacteria Reference Unit (GBRU) data to the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data set to study the trends and outcomes of NTS bacteremias in England between 2004 and 2015. All confirmed NTS isolates from blood from England submitted to GBRU between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 were deterministically linked to HES records. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), proportions, and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to describe differences in age, sex, antibiotic resistance patterns, and serotypes over time. Males, neonates, and adults above 65 years were more likely to have NTS bacteremia (AOR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.46 to 1.67]; 2.57 [95% CI, 1.43 to 4.60]; and 3.56 [95% CI, 3.25 to 3.90], respectively). Proportions of bacteremia increased from 1.41% in 2004 to 2.67% in 2015. Thirty-four percent of all blood isolates were resistant to a first-line antibiotic, and 1,397 (56%) blood isolates were linked to an HES record. Of the patients with NTS bacteremia, 969 (69%) had a cardiovascular condition and 155 (12%) patients died, out of which 120 (77%) patients were age 65 years and above. NTS bacteremia mainly affects older people with comorbidities placing them at increased risk of prolonged hospital stay and death. Resistance of invasive NTS to first-line antimicrobial agents appeared to be stable in England, but the emergence of resistance to last-resort antibiotics, such as colistin, requires careful monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere01189
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Bacteremia
  • Bloodstream infection
  • Hospital admission
  • Human
  • Invasive infection
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella
  • Salmonellosis


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