Enterovirus infections in England and Wales, 2000-2011: The impact of increased molecular diagnostics

S. Kadambari*, A. Bukasa, I. O. Okike, Richard Pebody, David Brown, Christopher Gallimore, J. Xerry, M. Sharland, Shamez Ladhani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


There have recently been significant changes in diagnostic practices for detecting enterovirus (EV) infections across England and Wales. Reports of laboratory-confirmed EV infections submitted by National Health Service (NHS) hospital laboratories to Public Health England (PHE) over a 12-year period (2000-2011) were analysed. Additionally, the PHE Virus Reference Department (VRD) electronic database containing molecular typing data from 2004 onwards was interrogated. Of the 13 901 reports, there was a decline from a peak of 2254 in 2001 to 589 in 2006, and then an increase year-on-year to 1634 in 2011. This increase coincided with increasing PCR-based laboratory diagnosis, which accounted for 36% of reported cases in 2000 and 92% in 2011. The estimated annual incidence in 2011 was 3.9/100 000 overall and 238/100 000 in those aged <3 months, who accounted for almost one-quarter of reported cases (n = 2993, 23%). During 2004-2011, 2770 strains were submitted for molecular typing to the VRD, who found no evidence for a predominance of any particular strain. Thus, the recent increase in reported cases closely reflects the increase in PCR testing by NHS hospitals, but is associated with a lower proportion of samples being submitted for molecular typing. The high EV rate in young infants merits further investigation to inform evidence-based management guidance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1289-1296
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


  • Cell culture
  • Enterovirus
  • Genotyping
  • PCR
  • Surveillance


Dive into the research topics of 'Enterovirus infections in England and Wales, 2000-2011: The impact of increased molecular diagnostics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this