2018/19 was the first season of introduction of a newly licensed adjuvanted influenza vaccine (aTIV) for adults aged 65 years and over and the sixth season in the roll-out of a childhood influenza vaccination programme with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The season saw mainly A(H1N1)pdm09 and latterly A(H3N2) circulation. End-of-season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) estimates against laboratory confirmed influenza infection in primary care were calculated using the test negative case control method adjusting for key confounders. End-of-season aVE was 44.3% (95% CI: 26.8, 57.7) against all laboratory-confirmed influenza; 45.7% (95% CI: 26.0, 60.1) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 35.1% (95% CI: −3.7,59.3) against A(H3N2). Overall aVE was 49.9% (95%CI: −13.7, 77.9) for all those ≥ 65 years of age and 62.0% (95% CI: 3.4, 85.0) for those who received aTIV. Overall aVE for 2–17 year olds receiving LAIV was 48.6% (95% CI: −4.4, 74.7). The paper provides evidence of overall significant influenza VE in 2018/19, most notably against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, however, as seen in 2017/18, there was reduced, non-significant VE against A(H3N2). aTIV provided significant protection for those 65 years of age and over.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information: The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: SdeL has received University funding for studies of post vaccination adverse events of interest from GSK, and for attitudes to vaccination from Seqirus; and has been a member of Seqirus and Sanofi advisory boards. MD received lecturing fee from Sanofi Pasteur MSD; SpeeDx provided partial financial support for an educational meeting and UK Clinical Virology Network (UK CVN) which he chairs is a registered charity which includes a number of commercial partners. CM has received funding as an advisory board member of Seqirus. No other co-authors had conflicts to declare.
Open Access: No Open Access licence.
Publisher Copyright: Crown Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Citation: Richard G. Pebody, Heather Whitaker, Joanna Ellis, Nick Andrews, Diogo F.P. Marques, Simon Cottrell, Arlene J. Reynolds, Rory Gunson, Catherine Thompson, Monica Galiano, Angie Lackenby, Chris Robertson, Mark G. O'Doherty, Katie Owens, Ivelina Yonova, Samantha J. Shepherd, Catherine Moore, Jillian Johnston, Matthew Donati, Jim McMenamin, Simon de Lusignan, Maria Zambon, End of season influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in adults and children in the United Kingdom in 2018/19, Vaccine, Volume 38, Issue 3,
2020, Pages 489-497, ISSN 0264-410X,
- Primary care