In this study, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli isolates from retail food and humans assigned into similar Multilocus Sequence Types (MLST) were analyzed using whole genome sequencing (WGS). In silico analysis of assembled sequences revealed the existence of multiple resistance genes among the examined E. coli isolates. Of the six CTX-M-producing isolates from retail food, bla (CTX-M-14) was the prevalent variant identified (83.3%, 5/6). Two plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes, fosA3, and fosA4, were detected from retail food isolates (one each from chicken and beef), where fosA4 was identified in the chicken isolate 82CH that also carried the colistin resistance gene mcr-1. The bla (CTX-M-14) and fosA genes in retail food isolates were located adjacent to insertion sequences ISEcp1 and IS26, respectively. Sequence analysis of the reconstructed mcr-1 plasmid (p82CH) showed 96-97% identity to mcr-1-carrying IncI2 plasmids previously identified in human and food E. coli isolates from Egypt. Hierarchical clustering of core genome MLST (HierCC) revealed clustering of chicken isolate 82CH, co-harboring mcr-1 and fosA4 genes, with a chicken E. coli isolate from China at the HC200 level (
Bibliographical noteFunding Information: This work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) project 6040-32000-079-00-D. The Science, Technology and Innovation Fund Authority (STIFA) of Egypt (Short term fellowship, ID 25449) partially supported this work.
The authors acknowledge the Daniel Turnberg UK/Middle East
Travel Fellowship for funding the visit of Dr. Hazem Ramadan to
Public Health England, UK.
Open Access: Copyright © 2021 Ramadan, Soliman, Hiott, Elbediwi, Woodley, Chattaway, Jenkins, Frye and Jackson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the
copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Publisher Copyright: © Copyright © 2021 Ramadan, Soliman, Hiott, Elbediwi, Woodley, Chattaway, Jenkins, Frye and Jackson.
Citation: Ramadan, Hazem, et al. "Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M, MCR-1, and FosA in Retail Food From Egypt." Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 11 (2021).
- Escherichia coli
- cgMLST clustering
- genetic context
- retail food
- whole genome sequencing