Electrical conductivity of tissue at frequencies below 1 MHz

C. Gabriel*, Azadeh Peyman, E. H. Grant

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

503 Citations (Scopus)


A two-pronged approach, review and measurement, has been adopted to characterize the conductivity of tissues at frequencies below 1 MHz. The review covers data published in the last decade and earlier data not included in recent reviews. The measurements were carried out on pig tissue, in vivo, and pig body fluids in vitro. Conductivity data have been obtained for skeletal and myocardial muscle, liver, skull, fat, lung and body fluids (blood, bile, CSF and urine). A critical analysis of the data highlights their usefulness and limitations and enables suggestions to be made for measuring the electrical properties of tissues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4863-4878
Number of pages16
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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