East London experience with enteric fever 2007-2012

Jayshree Dave, Michael Millar, Horst Maxeiner, Joanne Freedman, Rachel Meade, Caryn Rosmarin, Matthew Jordan, Nicholas Andrews, Richard Holliman, Armine Sefton

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007-2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods: A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results: Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/ new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0-57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1-20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions: Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0120926
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2015

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© 2015 Dave et al.


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