Durability of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination in people living with HIV

Ane Ogbe*, Matthew Pace, Mustapha Bittaye, Timothy Tipoe, Sandra Adele, Jasmini Alagaratnam, Parvinder K. Aley, M. Azim Ansari, Anna Bara, Samantha Broadhead, Anthony Brown, Helen Brown, Federica Cappuccini, Paola Cinardo, Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Katie J. Ewer, Henry Fok, Pedro M. Folegatti, Jamie Fowler, Leila GodfreyAnna L. Goodman, Bethany Jackson, Daniel Jenkin, Mathew Jones, Stephanie Longet, Rebecca A. Makinson, Natalie G. Marchevsky, Moncy Mathew, Andrea Mazzella, Yama F. Mujadidi, Lucia Parolini, Claire Petersen, Emma Plested, Katrina M. Pollock, Thurkka Rajeswaran, Maheshi N. Ramasamy, Sarah Rhead, Hannah Robinson, Nicola Robinson, Helen Sanders, Sonia Serrano, Tom Tipton, Anele Waters, Panagiota Zacharopoulou, Eleanor Barnes, Susanna Dunachie, Philip Goulder, Paul Klenerman, Gavin R. Screaton, Alan Winston, Adrian V.S. Hill, Sarah C. Gilbert, Miles Carroll, Andrew J. Pollard, Sarah Fidler, Julie Fox, Teresa Lambe, John Frater

*Corresponding author for this work

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Duration of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV (PWH) following vaccination is unclear. In a substudy of the phase II/III the COV002 trial (NCT04400838), 54 HIV+ male participants on antiretroviral therapy (undetectable viral loads, CD4(+) T cells > 350 cells/mu L) received 2 doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) 4-6 weeks apart and were followed for 6 months. Responses to vaccination were determined by serology (IgG ELISA and Meso Scale Discovery [MSD]), neutralization, ACE-2 inhibition, IFN-gamma ELISpot, activation-induced marker (AIM) assay and T cell proliferation. We show that, 6 months after vaccination, the majority of measurable immune responses were greater than prevaccination baseline but with evidence of a decline in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. There was, however, no significant difference compared with a cohort of HIV-uninfected individuals vaccinated with the same regimen. Responses to the variants of concern were detectable, although they were lower than WT. Preexisting cross-reactive T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike were associated with greater postvaccine immunity and correlated with prior exposure to beta coronaviruses. These data support the ongoing policy to vaccinate PWH against SARS-CoV-2, and they underpin the need for long-term monitoring of responses after vaccination.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere157031
Number of pages19
JournalJCI Insight
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: This Article reports independent research funded by UK Research and Innovation (MC_PC_19055), Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/R013756/1), Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and NIHR. We acknowledge support from Thames Valley and South Midland’s NIHR Clinical Research Network and the staff and resources of NIHR Southampton Clinical Research Facility and the NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre. PMF received funding from the Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior, Brazil (finance code 001). ALF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Science, China (grant 2018-I2M-2–002). MAA is supported by the Wellcome Trust and Royal Society (no. 220171/Z/20/Z). KJE is an NIHR Biomedical Research Centre senior research fellow. AJP and EB are NIHR senior investigators. MC, SL, and T Tipton are funded by a US Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative grant 75F40120C00085. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NIHR, FDA, or the UK Department of Health and Social Care. We thank the volunteers who participated in this study.

The funders of the study had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. All authors had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.

Oxford University has entered into a partnership with AstraZeneca for further development of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222). AstraZeneca reviewed the data from the study and the final manuscript before submission, but the authors
retained editorial control. SCG is cofounder of Vaccitech (a collaborator in the early development of this vaccine candidate) and is named as an inventor on a patent covering use of ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines (PCT/GB2012/000467) and a patent application covering this SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. TL is named as an inventor
on a patent application covering this SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and was consultant to Vaccitech. PMF is a consultant to Vaccitech. AJP is Chair of the UK Department of Health and Social Care’s JCVI; however, AJP does not participate in policy advice on
coronavirus vaccines and is a member of the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE). AVSH is a cofounder of and consultant to Vaccitech and is named as an inventor on a patent covering design and use of ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines (PCT/GB2012/000467).

Open Access: This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Publisher Copyright: © 2022, Ogbe et al.

Citation: Ogbe, Ane, et al. "Durability of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination in people living with HIV." JCI insight 7.7 (2022).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.157031


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