Disinfection of feline calicivirus (a surrogate for Norovirus) in wastewaters

J. A. Tree, M. R. Adams, David N. Lees*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    58 Citations (Scopus)


    Aims: To compare the inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV) (a surrogate for Norovirus, NV) with the reduction of a bacterial water quality indicator (Escherichia colt), a human enteric virus (poliovirus) and a viral indicator (MS2, FRNA bacteriophage), following the disinfection of wastewaters. Methods and Results: Bench-scale disinfection experiments used wastewater (sterilized by gamma-irradiation) seeded with laboratory-cultured organisms. Seeded primary effluent was treated with different doses of applied free chlorine (8, 16 and 30 mg l-1). FCV and E. coli were easily inactivated by >4 log 10, within 5 min with a dose of 30 mg l-1̃1 of applied chlorine. Poliovirus was more resistant and a reduction of 2.85 log 10 was seen after 30 min, MS2 was the most resistant organism (1 log10 inactivation). In further experiments seeded secondary effluent was treated with different doses of u.v. irradiation. To achieve a 4-log 10 reduction of E. coli, FCV, poliovirus and MS2 doses of 5.32, 19.04, 27.51 and 62.50 mW s cm-2, respectively, were required. Conclusions: Feline calicivirus and E. coli seeded in primary wastewater were very susceptible to chlorination compared with poliovirus and MS2. In contrast, FCV seeded in secondary wastewater was more resistant to u.v. irradiation than E. coli but more sensitive than poliovirus and MS2. Significance and Impact of the Study: FRNA phage was more resistant to inactivation than all the viruses tested. This suggests FRNA phage would be a useful and conservative indicator of virus inactivation following disinfection of wastewaters with chlorination or u.v. irradiation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)155-162
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2005


    • Chlorination
    • Feline calicivirus
    • Inactivation
    • Ultraviolet irradiation
    • Wastewater


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