Discovery and Application of Novel Biomarkers

Timothy Gant*, Emma L. Marczylo, Martin Leonard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Biomarkers can be divided into three time-based classes: past, present, and future. Past markers are exposure biomarkers and indicate that an exposure has taken place even if there is no adverse consequence from that exposure. Present markers are those that indicate an ongoing process, such as pathophysiology. Future markers are prognostic. They indicate something that is likely to happen but has not yet happened. One of the first applications of the new genomic technologies was in the development of the complex RNA biomarker (transcriptomic biomarker), particularly for distinguishing between various types of cancer that were difficult to differentiate pathologically. There are potentially three forms of DNA alteration that can act as biomarkers of toxicological events. This chapter highlights the many exciting and varied options for the continued development of novel biomarkers that will help to improve the biomonitoring of exposure, effect, and prognosis within humans and human biomaterials.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPredictive Toxicology
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Vision to Reality
PublisherWiley Blackwell
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9783527674183
ISBN (Print)9783527336081
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.


  • Biomarkers
  • Pathophysiology
  • Prognostic
  • RNA biomarker


Dive into the research topics of 'Discovery and Application of Novel Biomarkers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this