Derivation of sound emission source terms for high speed trains running at speeds in excess of 300 km/h

T. Marshall*, B. A. Fenech, R. Greer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the UK connecting London to Manchester and Leeds, via Birmingham. A key concern for many is the environmental impact of the scheme, particularly noise. Trains on HS2 are specified to operate at a maximum speed of 360 km/h. There are currently no legislative passby sound level limits available in Europe for trains running at these speeds. Published measurements for higher speeds are typically for older generation trains, or for emission levels from sub-systems.

This paper discusses the methodology used to derive the sound emission source terms used for the HS2 noise impact assessment. At speeds in excess of 300 km/h, aerodynamic sound contributes to the overall passby sound levels, and cannot be neglected. Therefore source terms have been derived for five source types: power/traction, rolling sound, body aerodynamic sound, pantograph recess, and raised pantograph. The source term magnitudes for traction/power, rolling, and body aerodynamic sound were derived from limits defined in the technical specification for interoperability (TSI) for high-speed rail. Corrections were applied to allow for in service track and growth of wheel and rail roughness. The source terms for the pantograph recess and raised pantograph were derived from a range of measured and simulated data in published literature.

This paper also considers reductions for each of the five sources that have been demonstrated through published literature and which could therefore provide the opportunity for lower train sound emissions by the time that HS2 rolling stock is procured.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-504
Number of pages8
JournalNotes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


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