Objective. Provide analyses of new organ dose coefficients (hereafter also referred to as normalized doses) for CT that have been developed to update the widely-utilized collection of data published 30 years ago in NRPB-SR250. Approach. In order to reflect changes in technology, and also ICRP recommendations concerning use of the computational phantoms adult male (AM) and adult female (AF), 102 series of new Monte Carlo simulations have been performed covering the range of operating conditions for 12 contemporary models of CT scanner from 4 manufacturers. Normalized doses (relative to free air on axis) have been determined for 39 organs, and for every 8 mm or 4.84 mm slab of AM and AF, respectively. Main results. Analyses of results confirm the significant influence (by up to a few tens of percent), on values of normalized organ (or contributions to effective dose (E 103,phan)), for whole body exposure arising from selection of tube voltage and beam shaping filter. Use of partial (when available) rather than a Full fan beam reduced both organ and effective dose by up to 7%. Normalized doses to AF were larger than corresponding figures for AM by up to 30% for organs and by 10% for E 103,phan. Additional simulations for whole body exposure have also demonstrated that: practical simplifications in the main modelling (point source, single slice thickness, neglect of patient couch and immobility of phantom arms) have sufficiently small (<5%) effect on E 103,phan; mis-centring of the phantom away from the axis of rotation by 5 mm (in any direction) leads to changes in normalized organ dose and E 103,phan by up to 20% and 6%, respectively; and angular tube current modulation can result in reductions by up to 35% and <15% in normalized organ dose and E 103,phan, respectively, for 100% cosine variation. Significance. These analyses help advance understanding of the influence of operational scanner settings on organ dose coefficients for contemporary CT, in support of improved patient protection. The results will allow the future development of a new dose estimation tool.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the manufacturers for kindly providing details of their CT scanners under non-disclosure agreements for the purposes of the simulations presented in this paper. We also wish to thank John Holroyd (UKHSA) for his critical review of the manuscript.
© 2022 Crown Copyright, UK Health Security Agency.
- computer tomography
- effective dose
- ICRP adult reference computational phantoms
- Monte Carlo radiation transport
- organ dose conversion coefficient