Cryptosporidium in small water systems in Puerto rico: A pilot study

Guy Robinson, Harvey A. Minnigh, Paul R. Hunter, Rachel M. Chalmers, Graciela I.Ramírez Toro*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in four very small drinking water systems supplying communities in rural Puerto Rico. Water samples (40 L) were collected and oocysts were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, recovered by immunomagnetic separation and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in all four systems. This is the first report of evidence of the potential public health risk from this chlorine-resistant pathogen in Puerto Rican small water systems. Further work is warranted to fully assess the health risks that Cryptosporidium and other protozoa pose to populations served by community-managed small drinking water systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)853-858
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Water and Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© IWA Publishing 2015.


  • Calcium carbonate flocculation
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Puerto Rico
  • Small water systems


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