Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented.In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome.The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the UK Global Partnership Biological Engagement Programme and US Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program for this international collaboration. The authors would also like to acknowledge James Lewis (Public Health England, UK) for producing Figure 1 (source data http://www.gadm.org/ ) and Kenneth Yeh (MRIGlobal, Rockville, MD USA) for data analysis and review. In addition, the authors wish to recognise the following institutes/committees in providing invaluable support for this multi-national collaboration: Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Committee for Consumer Rights Protection (CCRP); Kazakh Scientific Center for Quarantine and Zoonotic Diseases; Uralsk Anti-Plague Station; Scientific-Practical Center for Sanitary–Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring; State Revenues Committee of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The views in this report are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the funding bodies.
- Central Asia
- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever