Contribution to clostridium difficile transmission of symptomatic patients with toxigenic strains who are fecal toxin negative

Damian P.C. Mawer*, David W. Eyre, David Griffiths, Warren N. Fawley, Jessica S.H. Martin, T. Phuong Quan, Timothy E.A. Peto, Derrick W. Crook, A. Sarah Walker, Mark H. Wilcox

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. The role of symptomatic patients who are toxigenic strain positive (TS+) but fecal toxin negative (FT+) in transmission of Clostridium difficile is currently unknown. Methods. We investigated the contribution of symptomatic TS+/FT- and TS+/FT+ patients in C. difficile transmission in 2 UK regions. From 2-step testing, all glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-positive specimens, regardless of fecal toxin result, from Oxford (April 2012 through April 2013) and Leeds (July 2012 through April 2013) microbiology laboratories underwent culture and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), using WGS to identify toxigenic strains. Plausible sources for each TS+/FT+ case, including TS+/ FT+ and TS+/FT+ patients, were determined using WGS, with and without hospital admission data. Results. A total of 1447 of 12 772 (11%) fecal samples were GDH positive, 866 of 1447 (60%) contained toxigenic C. difficile, and fecal toxin was detected in 511 of 866 (59%), representing 235 Leeds and 191 Oxford TS+/FT+ cases. TS+/FT+ cases were 3 times more likely to be plausibly acquired from a previous TS+/FT+ case than a TS+/FT+ patient. Fifty-one of 265 (19%) TS+/FT+ cases diagnosed 3 months into the study were genetically related (≤2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) to ≥1 previous TS+/FT+ case or TS+/FT+ patient: 27 (10%) to only TS+/FT+ cases, 9 (3%) to only TS+/FT+ patients, and 15 (6%) to both. Only 10 of 265 (4%) were genetically related to a previous TS+/FT+ or TS+/FT+ patient and shared the same ward simultaneously or within 28 days. Conclusions. Symptomatic TS+/FT+ patients were a source of C. difficile transmission, although they accounted for less onward transmission than TS+/FT+ cases. Although transmission from symptomatic patients with either fecal toxin status accounted for a low overall proportion of new cases, both groups should be infection control targets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1163-1170
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume64
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Claire Berry and Faye Pinker for their help collecting hospital admissions data in Leeds. This study was supported by the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (Wellcome Trust [grant number 087646/Z/08/Z]; Medical Research Council [grant number G0800778]; and the National Institute for Health Research [NIHR]); and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre. D. W. C. and T. E. A. P. are NIHR senior investigators. D. W. E. is a NIHR clinical lecturer.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Clostridium difficile
  • Fecal toxin
  • Infection
  • Transmission

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