Objectives: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is essential to provide an evidence base for empirical treatment protocols and to monitor emerging AMR. We sought to compare phenotypic and WGS-based genotypic methods for the detection of AMR in Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. Methods: WGS data from 603 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n = 332) and Salmonella Paratyphi (n = 271) were mapped to genes or chromosomal mutations known to be associated with phenotypic AMR and compared with phenotypic susceptibility data interpreted using breakpoints recommended by EUCAST. Results: There were two (0.03%) discordant interpretations out of a possible 6030 isolate/antimicrobial class combinations. MDR (resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobial) was detected in 83/332 (25.0%) Salmonella Typhi isolates, but was not detected in Salmonella Paratyphi. Thirty-six (10.8%) isolates of Salmonella Typhi were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.5 mg/L), with 33 (9.9%) of 332 exhibiting mutations in gyrA and parC, and 244 (73.5%) isolates had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.06-0.25 mg/L). In comparison, 209/227 (92.1%) isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi A exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin (MIC >0.5 mg/L). No resistance to azithromycin or the third-generation cephalosporins was detected. Conclusions: WGS data provided a robust and informative approach for monitoring MDR and emerging resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. Phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing continues to be performed to guide targeted individual patient treatment, but inferred AMR profiles from WGS data may be used for surveillance and to guide empirical therapy.
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